Dissecting Dishes for Insects — St. Steel made size 10 x 8 dia small. Dissecting microscope with 2 eye piece 10x and 20x China type. Dissection Tray; Stainless Steel 11"x7" with wax. Glass Slides pkt of 72 pieces 76 x 26 mm with ground edges.
Permanent Slides Budding in Hydra. Reagent Glass Bottles with Stopper ml medium size N. M China. Water bath ; 6" copper Double wall, Heater, 6 holes. Beakers with different sizes ; ml,25 each. Distillation apparatus; 4 Litres stainless steel, Electrical automatic.
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Capacitor apparatus behaviour of capacitors in A. C Circuit complete with China meters complete superior.A modern microbiology laboratory should be furnished with the following equipment. Liquid substances, such as prepared media and saline solutions cannot be sterilized in oven, as they lose water due to evaporation.
An oven Figure 3. The thermostat dial reading is approximate and the exact temperature is read by introducing a thermometer into the oven or on a built-in L-shaped thermometer. In a modern oven Figure 3. Time is set by a digital timer. The required temperature is set. After the oven attains the set temperature, the required time of sterilization is set on the timer. The oven switches off automatically after the set time. The oven is opened, only after its temperature comes down near to room temperature.
Autoclave is the nucleus of a microbiology laboratory. It has the same working principle as a domestic pressure cooker. This temperature is sufficient to kill only the non-spore formers, but it is difficult to kill the spore-forming bacteria at this temperature, as they escape by forming heat resistant spores. It takes very long time to kill the spores at this temperature. This high temperature is required to kill all the bacteria including the heat resistant spore-formers. Steam temperature increases with increase in steam pressure Table 3.
In operating a standard vertical autoclave, Figure 3. If water is too less, the bottom of the autoclave gets dried during heating and further heating damages it. If it has in-built water heating element, Figure 3. On the other hand, if there is too much water, it takes long time to reach the required temperature. The materials to be sterilized are covered with craft paper and arranged on an aluminium or wooden frame kept on the bottom of the autoclave, otherwise if the materials remain half-submerged or floating, they tumble during boiling and water may enter.
The autoclave is closed perfectly airtight only keeping the steam release valve open. Then, it is heated over flame or by the in-built heating element. Air inside the autoclave should be allowed to escape completely through this valve.
When water vapour is seen to escape through the valve, it is closed. Temperature and pressure inside goes on increasing. The pressure increase is observed on the pressure dial. The required time is considered from the point, when the required temperature-pressure is attained. Once required temperature-pressure is attained, it is maintained by controlling the heating source.
After the specified time 15 minutesheating is discontinued and steam release valve slightly opened. If fully opened immediately, due to sudden fall in pressure, liquids may spill out from the containers.
Gradually, the steam release is opened more and more, so as to allow all steam to escape. The autoclave is opened only after the pressure drops back to normal atmospheric pressure 0 psi. The autoclave should never be opened, when there is still pressure inside. The hot sterilized materials are removed by holding them with a piece of clean cloth or asbestos- coated hand gloves.
In case of a steam-jacketed horizontal autoclave, a boiler produces the steam Figure 3. It is released at a designated pressure, into the outer chamber jacket.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Chala Dandessa. A well equipped Biology lab with traditional as well as latest technological devices is an important part of every school. Biology Lab is a place where different types of experiments and activities concerning all the disciplines of life sciences take place.
Therefore biology lab should have comprehensive range of latest lab equipments and other facilities where students can work comfortably with maximum interest pushing forward the boundaries of knowledge.
They are hidden and must be wrested from nature by an active and elaborate technique of inquiry. The goals of the laboratory are:- 1. Provide the services of a general lab, with basic equipment and chemicals for standard analytical and biological tests.
Ensure access to basic and safe working spaces for all users of the laboratory facility. Provide the services of a library. Facilitate the tools and services required by the researchers to do their studies. Because, it needs some structures and physical facilities to give function. Some requirements of laboratory. Store Must have sufficient no. Of almirahs as per plan of the lab and no. Of students. Teachers room for biology department teacher to study and keep records and books well equipped with al mirah and furniture 4.
Light Laboratory must receive ample day light in order to make the observation etc. Of the materials easily visible especially needed for light view microscope.
8 Basic Laboratory Equipment Used in Microbiology | Biology
Worktop: acid proof anticorrosive surface. To resist strong acid, alkali scratch fading ageing high temperature stain resistant free from solvent and non-toxic.
Height to be comfortable to manage the microscope. Attached with small cupboard with easily cleanable sinks and water supply. Ample space must be free for students to move. Proper drainage with covered dustbins, proper electric points. Floor Floor with non-skid tiling resist strong acid and alkali,but also resist scratch, fading, ageing, and strain resistant. It is free from solvent and non-toxic. Worktop:marble plate and ceramic plate not only resist strong acid and alkali but also resist starch,fading, ageing, high temperature belowc and stain resistant.
Attached with drawers and on both sides to keep teaching materials such aschalks, markers, dusters, cds etc. Proper drainage with covered dustbins below the table with proper electric points, fitted with water supply.
Power supply Regular power supply with sufficient no. Of power points around each table for viewing electricity operated microscopes. Water supply Lab must have atleast four outlets and four wash basins.
Fire Extinguisher At least one meant for all types of fires.In the laboratory, eight main types of instruments are used:- 1. Balance 2. Centrifug e 3. Hot Air Oven 4.
Incubators 5. Water Bath 6. Microscope 7. Autoclave 8. Laminar Flow. By advancement in technology to make the laboratory testings more accurate, fast, reliable and cost effective, we require these instruments with its proper care and maintenance.
A balance is used to find out the mass of a substance by comparing it with known masses. These are used to weigh the chemicals accurately. Physical balance is based on the principle of moments according to which, when a body is in equilibrium, under the action of a number of forces acting on it in the same plane, the sum of the clockwise moments is equal to the sum of the anticlockwise moments.
The balance should not be loaded with a weight greater than the maximum. They are designed to accurate the sedimentation process by using centrifugal force.
Molecular Biology Laboratory Equipment List
Centrifuge is applying centrifugal force to separate the useful component in mixtures of liquids and solids or liquids and liquids. Centrifuge is mainly used to separate solids from liquids in suspension or separate two liquids with different density and non-homogenous liquids, for example, separate cream form milk, and also it can be used to remove liquids existed in solids, such as special speeding tubular centrifuges can separate the mixed gas content with different density, depending different density and particle size of solid particles in the liquid and different characteristics of the subsiding speed centrifuge, the sedimentation centrifuge also can classified solids according to different density and particle size.
Centrifuge is widely used in chemical, oil, food, pharmaceutical, beneficiation, coal, water treatment and shipping etc.
Centrifuge has a drum rotating its axle called bowl, generally derived by motor. Suspension or emulsion is introduced to the bowl and rotate with bowl with the same speed, eject separately under the centrifugal force.
Usually, high separation speed, high separation ratio. The principle of centrifuge is divided to centrifugal filtering and centrifugal sedimentation. Centrifugal filtering is made suspension become filtrate under the centrifugal force.
And the centrifugal sedimentation is applied different density to separate suspension and emulsion and realize liquid-solid or liquid-liquid separation. Care and Maintenance :. Before the centrifugation the centrifuge tubes should be balanced properly.
All the spells should be cleaned immediately. This kind of dry heat sterilization is recommended when it is undesirable that steam make contact with the material to be sterilized. Even the kitchen oven can be used. Light bulbs heat air in the bottom part of the incubator. The air passes over a container with evaporating water, so that its humidity increases. The warm, humid air then flows upwards chimney effect into the compartment.
A thermostat in an exit hole compares the air temperature with the desired temperature.The daily routine of a biologist involves the use of basic equipment in their biology experiments — such as microscopes, test tubes, beakers, and Bunsen burners — as well as high-tech scientific equipment and computers. This equipment is necessary for the basic studies of biology: visualizing cells and organelles, as well as preparing samples of cells or fluids for testing or visualization, dissecting specimens, or mixing chemicals.
Biologists use microscopes of differing powers to see organisms and samples more closely. They are high-powered, extremely expensive, and sensitive pieces of equipment that can make even the smallest parts of a single cell seem clear. Instead of using beams of light to illuminate the specimen being viewed, as inexpensive light microscopes do, an electron microscope uses beams of electrons.
The beams of electrons bring the finest details of the cell into focus and can allow even large molecules to be seen. The smallest size you can see with your naked eye is 0. This size is equivalent to one ridge on your fingerprint. Light microscopes magnify cells up to 1, times. Using the shortest ray of light, which allows the highest resolution, light microscopes can view things as small as 0.
For objects smaller than 0. Electron microscopes allow you to see objects that are as small as 0.
In comparison to a light microscope being able to magnify 1, times, electron microscopes can magnify objectstimes. To examine a specimen, biologists must place a sample — whether the sample is blood, mucus, saliva, skin cells, or urine — in or on something:.
Test tubes: If the sample needs to be centrifuged — spun very rapidly to separate fluid and particles — or needs to have solutions added to it, then the sample most likely is placed in a test tube. Petri dishes: If a sample must be grown before it can be identified, the sample must be cultured.
To culture a sample, a petri dish containing a culture medium is inoculated, or smeared and pressed, onto the medium. The scientist must keep the petri dish at normal body temperature for the species being studied humans: A series of tests can then be done on the cultured specimen to determine what organism it is. Dyes are agents that color structures of the cell, which allow the structures to be more easily viewed when using a microscope.
In some cases, stains make usually invisible structures visible.The following points highlight the three main equipments that are used in hematology laboratory. The equipments are: 1. Equipment for Weighing 2. Centrifuge 3. Automatic Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate. Weighting equipments are essential in a medical laboratory.
They are used to weigh substances for the preparation of reagents. Analytical balance is basically a two-pan balance. It has a simple operation by which a set of known weight is added in one pan while the other pan is balanced by the substance being weighed. This type of balance is fast fading out a modification of the balance. Attached to one end of the balance is a beam with a weighing scale on it. Before weighing a substance, the scale is set to zero with the aid of a knob at the other end of the beam.
A substance is weighed by moving the scale on the beam to achieve equilibrium. These balances take a maximum load of about gm with a sensitivity of 1mg. This type of balance correlates weight of a -substance with electromagnetic force. It is a mono-pan balance, supported by an electric coil which is suspended in an electromagnetic field.
Adding with to pan causes the coil to move. This movement changes the electric current within the electromagnetic field. This change is proportional to the weight of the substance, and is measured with an indicator system.
The electronic balance, though expensive, offers accuracy, speed and ease of operation. There are two versions of this type of balance, electric or electronic. The electric one is less expensive and more robust. The two versions have the same advantages of being easy and quick to use because the weight of the substance is seen on the direct read-out scale, they also have a device which compensates for the weight of the weighing container.Laboratory Equipment Names - List of Laboratory Equipment in English
Laboratory balances are delicate precision instruments which require careful handling and regular maintenance.A premium membership for higher-level suppliers.
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8 Basic Laboratory Equipment Used in Microbiology | Biology
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